Economic Sanctions to Achieve
U.S. Foreign Policy Goals:
Discussion and Guide to Current Law



Current Law Related to Specific Countries

Afghanistan.

§ 620D, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2374) (prohibits foreign assistance)

Angola.

§ 2(b)(11), Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 (Public Law 79-173; 12 USC 635(b)(11)) (prohibits Export-Import Bank credits)

§ 316, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 (Public Law 99-661; 10 USC 2304 note) (prohibits Department of Defense contracts)

Azerbaijan.

Assistance for the New Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2397) (subsec. (n) prohibits foreign assistance to Azerbaijan until the President determines and certifies that the Government of Azerbaijan is taking demonstrable steps to cease all blockades against Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh (excludes funds for democracy building, TDA, or the U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service))

Bosnia-Hercegovina.

Assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 ( Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2394) (withholds economic revitalization funds for Bosnia-Hercegovina until President certifies as to withdrawal of foreign forces and cessation of cooperation between Iranian and Bosnian intelligence communities)

§ 8132, Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998 (prohibits use of DOD funds for deployment of U.S. Armed Forces in Bosnia and Hercegovina past June 30, 1998, unless certain conditions are met)

Burma (Myanmar).

§ 138, Customs and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-382) (authorizes President to impose such economic sanctions as he determines to be appropriate)

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 570, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (§ 101(c) of title I of Public Law 104-208) (prohibits most foreign assistance; requires "no" votes in international financial institutions; authorizes President to restrict visas and impose investment sanctions, until such time that the President determines and certifies that Burma has made measurable and substantial progress in improving human rights and implementing democratic government)

Cambodia.

§ 906, International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83) (prohibits certain aid to Khmer Rouge)

Cambodia, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2390) (prohibits most foreign assistance to Government of Cambodia (excluding humanitarian, demining, or election-related programs or activities))

§ 589, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2438) (requires the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. executive directors of international financial institutions to oppose loans to Government of Cambodia, except loans supporting basic human needs)

Chile.

§ 726, International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97-113) (prohibits most security and military assistance to Chile until the President certifies on certain conditions in human rights, terrorism, extraterritorial assassination)

Congo (former Zaire).

§ 585, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2437) (prohibits foreign assistance to the central Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo until President determines and certifies as to its cooperation with U.N. investigators in accounting for human rights violations in Congo or adjacent countries)

Cuba.

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 620(a), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2370(a)) (prohibits foreign assistance; authorizes total embargo)

§ 902(c), Food Security Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-198; 7 USC 1446 note) (prohibits sugar import quota to any country found to be importing for reexport to the United States sugar produced in Cuba)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 ( Public Law 104-208; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ 1704(b), Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 22 USC 6003(b)) (authorizes the prohibition of foreign assistance, arms export assistance, and debt forgiveness to any country conducting trade with Cuba)

§ 1705, Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 22 USC 6004) (limits terms for donations and exportation of food and medicine to Cuba)

§ 1706, Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 22 USC 6005) (prohibits licenses for exportation to Cuba; restricts port access to ships that have docked in Cuba; restricts remittances)

§ 102(h), Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6032) (codifies 31 CFR part 515 (Cuban Assets Control Regulations) in permanent law)

§ 103, Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6033) (prohibits indirect financing of any transaction involving confiscated property the claim to which is owned by a U.S. national)

§ 104, Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6034) (authorizes opposition in international financial institutions to admission of Cuba; reduces U.S. contribution to any international financial institution that completes most transactions with Cuba)

§ 105, Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6035) (requires continued effort to maintain suspension of Government of Cuba from Organization of American States participation)

§ 111(b), Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6041(b)) (withholds assistance from any country found to be supporting the completion of Cuba's nuclear facility at Juragua, Cuba)

§ 302, Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6082) (makes liable for civil claims anyone trafficking in confiscated property, to which a U.S. citizen has made a claim, in Cuba)

§ 401, Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114;22 USC 6091) (authorizes the Secretary of State to deny a visa to any alien who has trafficked in confiscated property in Cuba)

Guatemala.

International Military Education and Training, title III, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2400) (restricts International Military Education and Training funding)

Foreign Military Financing Program, title III, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2403) (prohibits Foreign Military Finance funding)

Haiti.

§ 562, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2427) (prohibits foreign assistance, excluding humanitarian, electoral, counter-narcotics, or law enforcement assistance)

§ 621, Department of State Appropriations Act, FY1998 (Public Law 105-119; 111 Stat. 2520) (prohibits State Department funding for visa issuance to certain Haitians involved in extra judicial and political killings, or to certain members of the Haitian High Command during 1991-1994)

Indonesia.

International Military Education and Training, title III, Foreign Operations, Export financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2400) (restricts International Military Education and Training funding)

§ 571, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2429) (requires any agreement for sale, transfer, or licensing of lethal equipment or helicopter -- for Indonesia entered into by United States to state that the United States expects that the items will not be used in East Timor)

Iran.

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ Iran Sanctions Act of 1990 (§ 586 through 586J of Public Law 101-513) (made applicable to Iran pursuant to § 1603, Public Law 102-484; see discussion under "Iraq")

§ 1604, Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 50 USC 1701 note) (sanctions individuals for contributing to Iraq's or Iran's efforts to acquire chemical, biological, nuclear, or destabilizing numbers and types of advanced conventional weapons)

§ 1605, Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 50 USC 1701 note) (sanctions foreign countries for contributing to Iraq's or Iran's efforts to acquire chemical, biological, nuclear, or destabilizing numbers and types of advanced conventional weapons)

§§ 5, 6, Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-172; 50 USC 1701 note) (authorizes the President to impose two or more of following sanctions on person if found to have engaged in investment in Iran: prohibit Export-Import Bank assistance, deny export licenses, prohibit U.S. financial institutions from making loans to sanctioned person, further restrict financial institutions from certain transactions, prohibit procurement contracts, restrict importation)

Iraq.

§ 586C, 586F, 586G, Iraq Sanctions Act (in title V of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991; Public Law 101-513) (continues President's imposition of trade embargo; prohibits arms sales, foreign military financing programs, export licenses for U.S. Munitions List items, items controlled for national security or foreign policy reasons, and nuclear equipment, materials, and technology. Requires U.S. vote against international financial institution funding, prohibited Export-Import bank funding, Commodity Credit Corporation assistance, and most U.S. foreign assistance)

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ 534, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2416) (prohibits foreign assistance and transactions under the Arms Export Control Act to any country not in compliance with U.N. sanctions against Iraq)

§ 1604, Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 50 USC 1701 note) (sanctions individuals for contributing to Iraq's or Iran's efforts to acquire chemical, biological, nuclear, or destabilizing numbers and types of advanced conventional weapons)

§ 1605, Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-484; 50 USC 1701 note) (sanctions foreign countries for contributing to Iraq's or Iran's efforts to acquire chemical, biological, nuclear, or destabilizing numbers and types of advanced conventional weapons)

Liberia.

Foreign Military Financing Program, title III, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2402) (prohibits Foreign Military Financing funding)

Libya.

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 504, International Security and development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83) (authorizes the President to prohibit importation and exportation of goods and services from/to Libya)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 104-208; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2412)(prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ 5, 6, Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-172; 50 USC 1701 note) (authorizes the President to impose two or more of following sanctions on person if found to have engaged in investment in Libya: prohibit Export-Import Bank assistance, deny export licenses, prohibit U. S. financial institutions from making loans to sanctioned person, further restrict financial institutions from certain transactions, prohibit procurement contracts, restrict importation)

§ 5, Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-172; 50 USC 1701 note) (further requires mandatory sanctions as described above if person is found to have contributed to Libya's ability to acquire chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons or destabilizing numbers and types of advanced conventional weapons, or enhanced Libya's military or paramilitary capabilities; contributed to Libya's petroleum resource development; contributed to Libya's ability to maintain its aviation capabilities)

Mauritania.

§ 202, Human Rights, Refugee, and Other Foreign Relations Provisions Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-319; 22 USC 2151 note) (states the President should prohibit economic and military assistance and arms transfers to Government of Mauritania for human rights reasons)

Nicaragua.

§ 722, International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-83) (prohibits foreign assistance and arms sales to paramilitary organizations and insurgent groups in Nicaragua)

North Korea.

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

International Organizations and Programs, title IV, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2405) (prohibits IO & P funding from being made available for Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) programs)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 104-208; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ 8066, Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-56) (prohibits DOD appropriations assistance)

Pakistan.

§ 620E(e), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2375(e)) (prohibits military assistance and military sales)

Panama.

§ 1302, National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989 (Public Law 100456; 22 USC 2151 note) (prohibits U.S. funding for Panamanian Defense Force)

People's Republic of China.

Public Law 99-183 (99 Stat. 1174) (requires certification that China is not violating sec. 129 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954)

§ 103, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101240; 12 USC 635 note) (prohibits finance of trade with, or credits, loan, credit guarantees, insurance or reinsurance to China; waived on day it was signed into law)

§ 902, Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101-246; 22 USC 2151 note) (continues: suspension Overseas Private Investment Corporation insurance, reinsurance, financing or guarantees; suspension new projects by the Trade and Development Agency; suspension of exports of most defense articles on the U.S. Munitions List (USML); and nuclear trade and cooperation. Prohibits: export licenses for crime control and detection equipment; Suspends: U.S. satellite exports and liberalization of multilateral export controls)

§ 610, Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101-162). (prohibits State Department appropriations to be used for approving export licenses to China for launch of U.S.-built satellites; waived on case-by-case basis)

International Organizations and Programs, title IV, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2405) (prohibits U.S. funds payable to U.N. family planning program (VNFPA) from being applied to programs in China)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

§ 2826, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 (Public Law 105-85) (prohibits conveyance of Long Beach Naval Station property to the China Ocean Shipping Company--COSCO)

Russia (see also [Former] Soviet Union East Bloc).

§ 498A(b), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195;22 USC 2295A(b)) (states ineligibility for foreign assistance to governments of the independent states)

§ 498A(d), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195;22 USC 2295A(d)) (reduces foreign assistance when Russia is found to be assisting Cuba with intelligence facilities)

Assistance for the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, ig98 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2395j (subsec. (b): prohibits funds under this paragraph from being made available to Russia unless that government is making progress in implementing comprehensive economic reforms, or if that government is found to be transferring such funds to support expropriation or property seizure. Subsec. (j) withholds 50 percent of funding under this paragraph until the President determines and certifies that Russia has terminated arrangements with Iran to provide that country nuclear technical expertise, training, technology, or equipment)

§ 577, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2433) (prohibits foreign assistance to Government of the Russian Federation unless President determines and certifies that the Government of the Russian Federation "has implemented no statute, executive order, regulation or similar government action that would discriminate, or would have as its principal effect discrimination, against religious groups or religious communities... ")

§ 2(b)(12), Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(12)) (prohibits Export- Import Bank guarantees, insurance, credits, or other participation in connection with transactions of the Russian military if the military or government transfer or deliver an SS-N-22 missile system to China)

§ 1406, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 (Public Law 105-85) (restricts Cooperative Threat Reduction funds to Russia until President certifies on implementation of Bilateral Destruction Agreement and general national security issues)

Serbia and Montenegro.

§ 1511, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (Public Law 103-160; 50 USC 1701 note) (prohibits broad range of relations, freezes assets, travel, assistance, international financial institution support)

Former Soviet Union/East Bloc.

§ 498A(b), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195;22 USC 2295A(b)) (states ineligibility for foreign assistance to governments of the independent states)

§ 11A, Export Administration Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-72; 50 USC App. 2410a) (prohibits exports)

Assistance for the New Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2395) (subsec. (c) prohibits most foreign assistance to any NIS violating another NIS's sovereignty (excludes humanitarian and refugee relief assistance. Subsec. (d) prohibits funding under this paragraph to be used for enhancing military capacity (excluding demilitarization, demining, or nonproliferation programs))

Sudan.

Foreign Military Financing Program, title III, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 199 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2402) (prohibits Foreign Military Financing funding)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

Syria.

§ 307, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2227) (prohibits use of U.S. foreign assistance paid in as U.S. proportionate share to international organizations when those organizations run programs in Burma, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, Iran, Cuba, or with the Palestine Liberation Organization)

§ 507, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2407) (prohibits direct foreign assistance)

§ 516, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2410) (prohibits foreign assistance for proportionate share payments to United Nations as stated in § 307, Foreign Assistance Act, or for Libya and Iran)

§ 523, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2412) (prohibits indirect foreign assistance)

Turkey.

§ 620(x), Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (Public Law 87-195; 22 USC 2370(x)) (suspends military assistance and transactions)

§ 565, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2428) (limits Economic Support funds)

Ukraine.

Assistance for the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, title II, Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105-118; 111 Stat. 2395) (subsec. (k) withholds 50 percent of funding made available to Ukraine under this paragraph until the Secretary of State determines and certifies that Ukraine has made significant progress toward resolving complaints of U.S. investors)

Vietnam (Socialist Republic of).

§ 610, State Department Appropriations Act, FY1998 (Public Law 105-119; 111 Stat. 2517) (prohibits State Department funding for diplomatic or consular post until certain conditions are met)



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