free trade, unilateral and economic trade sanctions

State and Local Sanctions Undermine Engagement
USA*ENGAGE's points in brief on how state and local governments can promote America's interests abroad through engagement, not through economic sanctions.

State and Local Sanctions Watch List
Table of current and pending state and local sanctions, based upon information supplied by the Organization for International Investment (OFII).

"Statement Of Frank D. Kittredge President, National Foreign Trade Council, and Vice Chairman, USA*ENGAGE, for the Los Angeles City Council, Intergovernmental Relations Committee
April 21, 1998
"USA*ENGAGE represents a new and important initiative in the longstanding debate over the use by the United States of unilateral sanctions to achieve foreign policy objectives."

"Statement Of Frank D. Kittredge President, National Foreign Trade Council, and Vice Chairman, USA*ENGAGE, before the Maryland House Commerce and Government Matters Committee
March 25, 1998
"Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee, I am Frank Kittredge, President of National Foreign Trade Council, an association of 550 U.S. companies engaged in international trade and investment. I am also appearing today as Vice Chairman of USA*ENGAGE, a broadly-based coalition of 661 companies, trade and agricultural organizations."

"Testimony of Deputy Assistant Secretary of State David Marchick, before the Maryland House Commerce and Government Matters Committee"
March 25, 1998
"Thank you for the opportunity to speak with you today. I would like to discuss with you our shared interest in promoting U.S. national security, strengthening protection of human rights and enhancing U.S. competitiveness."

"Testimony of Todd M. Malan, Executive Director, Organization for International Investment, Before the California Assembly Committee on International Trade and Development."
October 28, 1997
"In sum, we believe that a careful review of the relative costs and benefits of local sanctions actions clearly argues against their adoption. Such sanctions rarely, if ever, have their desired effect on target countries, while imposing significant costs on the U.S. economy, companies and workers. The energy devoted to localized sanctions actions would be far better spent working to develop and advance a consistent and coherent national foreign policy."

"The Unconstitutionality of State and Local Enactments in the United States Restricting Business Ties with Burma (Myanmar)"
May 1997, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law
David Schmahmann, James Finch
"As a punitive measure against the military regime in Burma, state and municipal governments in the United States have adopted laws penalizing firms that conduct business in that nation. This Article analyzes the validity of these statutes and ordinances under various provisions of the U.S. Constitution."

Index of news items related to state and local activities.

"State and Local Sanctions Trouble U.S. Trade Partners"
1 April 1998 The Wall Street Journal, Robert S. Greenberger
More trouble lies ahead. In the post-Cold War world, where international disputes rarely warrant military action, U.S. economic sanctions are proliferating, especially at the state and local level

"Md. Bill Targeting Nigeria Stirs Ire State Dept. Opposes Sanctions Proposal"
27 March 1998 The Washington Post
Rushern L. Baker III, a first-term Maryland delegate from Prince George's County, had no idea of the ruckus he would cause by seeking economic sanctions against Nigeria for what he saw as well-documented evidence of environmental and human rights abuses.

"Backing Illegal Sanctions"
August 6, 1997, The Journal of Commerce, Kimberly Ann Elliott
"Even before he resigned to lobby for Senate confirmation to be U.S. ambassador to Mexico, Massachusetts Governor William Weld dabbled in foreign policy. Last year he signed legislation restricting state procurement from companies doing business in Myanmar. "

"50 Different Departments of State"
July 1997, The Export Practitioner, Steven Spear
"President Teddy Roosevelt, in 1902, articulated a foreign policy principle that has served subsequent administrations well: 'Speak softly and carry a big stick.'"

"Thinking Globally, Punishing Locally"
May 16, 1997, The Washington Post, Paul Blustein
"States, Cities Rush to Impose Their Own Sanctions, Angering Companies and Foreign Affairs Experts. Here is a multiple choice question. Foreign policy is made by: (A) the federal government; (B) state governments; (C) local governments."

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