(Federal Activities for 107th Congress Coming Soon)

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Federal Sanctions Watch List for the 107th Congress
June 22, 2001

Text of S. 757, "The Sanctions Policy Reform Act"
This bill was introduced on March 24, 1999 by Sen. Richard Lugar, who said upon introducing the bill, "Our legislation does not prohibit the use of unilateral economic sanctions nor prevent a vote in the Congress on a proposed new sanction. It would require a set of procedural and informational requirements -- a more deliberative process -- that would have to be met before new sanctions are approved in either the Congress or the executive branch. We believe these requirements will improve our deliberations and lead to more careful policy decisions."

1998 Final Congressional Report Card (By Grade)
USA*ENGAGE and the NFTC released on October 22nd, a scorecard of Members of the House of Representatives by their votes throughout this Congress, on issues relating to international trade, U.S. unilateral sanctions, and U.S. economic engagement. Arranged in order by grade.

Federal Sanctions Watch List 106th Congress
List of current and pending federal sanctions, based on research by USA*ENGAGE.

Federal Sanctions Watch List 105th Congress
List of bills that failed in the 105th Congress, based on research by USA*ENGAGE.

1998 Interim Congressional Report Card (By Grade)
USA*ENGAGE and the NFTC released on August 31st, a scorecard of Members of the House of Representatives by their votes on issues relating to international trade, U.S. unilateral sanctions, and U.S. economic engagement. Arranged in order by grade.

1998 Interim Congressional Report Card (By State)
USA*ENGAGE and the NFTC released on August 31st, a scorecard of Members of the House of Representatives by their votes on issues relating to international trade, U.S. unilateral sanctions, and U.S. economic engagement. Arranged in order by state.

House International Relations Committee Dear Colleague on H.R. 1244
July 9, 1998
Members of the House International Relations Committee recently circulated a "Dear Colleague" letter which encouraged other members of the committee to cosponsor H.R. 1244, the Enhancement of Trade, Security and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act. (To date, this legislation has over 100 cosponsors.)

Letter from Thomas J. Donohue to U.S. Senate
October 7, 1998
Letter sent by Thomas J. Donohue, President and CEO of the US Chamber of Commerce, to all members of the US Senate urging them to vote against the "Freedom From Religious Persecution Act".

An open letter to The Honorable Newt Gingrich
September 22, 1998
The American economy has been booming for the past several years, creating jobs, boosting wages, and raising our standard of living. But now we find that the nation's economic health is seriously threatened by a number of developments around the world.

Letter to Senators Mitch McConnell (R-KY) and Joseph Biden (D-DE)
July 24, 1998
58 American CEOs, in a letter to the co-chairmen of the Senate Sanctions Task Force, reiterated their support for sanctions reform and asked that all sanctions-related legislation currently under consideration be put on hold until the Task Force issues its final report.

Senate vote on S. 1413
July 15, 1998
A "yea" vote meant that the Senator supported delaying consideration of the Lugar Amendment.

Full Text of S. 1413     Senate Sponsors List
Introduced November 7, 1997
Enhancement of Trade, Security, and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act

Full Text of H.R. 2708     House Sponsors List
Introduced October 23, 1997
Enhancement of Trade, Security, and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act

Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Talking Points
"The Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform bill seeks a more deliberative and disciplined approach to U.S. sanctions policy, so that such measures are driven by common sense, instead of being pushed to counter-productive ends by politics and emotion."

Dear Colleague Letter from the New Democrat Coalition
June 11, 1998
As members of the New Democrat Coalition, we are writing to urge you to join us in cosponsoring H.R. 2708, the Enhancement of Trade, Security and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act, which has been introduced by our colleague Rep. Lee Hamilton. This bill provides a common sense process for the implementation of unilateral economic sanctions for foreign policy purposes.

Dear Colleague Letter from Richard Lugar
June 4, 1998
At the earliest opportunity, I intend to offer as a floor amendment S. 1413, the "Enhancement of Trade, Security, and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act" -- the Sanctions Policy Reform Act. Given the contagion of foreign policy crises and the increased tendency to use sanctions to resolve them, typically without success, I believe it is time to engage in a serious debate on the merits of using unilateral economic sanctions to achieve foreign policy goals.

Dear Colleague Letter from Richard Lugar
October 30, 1997
"I will be introducing legislation next week to establish a more deliberative, common-sense approach to United States sanctions policy. The legislation is entitled the "Enhancement of Trade, Security, and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act" or simply the Sanctions Policy Reform Act."

Dear Colleague Letter from Lee H. Hamilton and Co-sponsors
February 18, 1998
"We write to urge you to co-sponsor H.R. 2708, the Enhancement of Trade, Security, and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act. H.R. 2708 would improve the way the U.S. government makes decisions to impose unilateral economic sanctions for foreign policy purposes."

Section-by-Section Analysis of Lugar-Hamilton-Crane
of the "Enhancement of Trade, Security and Human Rights through Sanctions Reform Act"

Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform Press Conference
October 23, 1997, Longworth House Office Building Library, Capitol Hill
Washington, D.C. -- The following is a complete transcript of statements, questions, and answers made at an October 23, 1997 press conference to introduce the Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform legislation.

Sanctions Reform Press Conference Photos
October 23, 1997, Longworth House Office Building Library, Capitol Hill
Washington, D.C. -- Photographs from the October 23, 1997 press conference to introduce the Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform legislation.

USA*ENGAGE Endorses Sanctions Reform Bill
October 23, 1997, USA*ENGAGE Press Release
"Washington, D.C. -- USA*ENGAGE applauded today's introduction of the Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform Bill, and called on all Members of Congress to support this important legislation."

News Release by Senator Dick Lugar, U.S. Senator from Indiana
October 23, 1997
Statement on Lugar-Hamilton Sanctions Bill

Statement of Representative Lee H. Hamilton
October 23, 1997
Introducing the Hamilton-Crane-Lugar Sanctions Reform Bill

Links to Congressional Offices

Written Testimony of Bill Martin
July 12, 2000 - Chairman of Washington Policy and Analysis, Inc., Bill Martin, testifies to the Senate Banking Committee that ILSA, based on the current world energy situation, is ironically enhancing the revenues of the targeted regimes in Iran and Libya.

Written Testimony of Archie W. Dunham

Archie W. Dunham, President and CEO of Conoco Inc., submitted written testimony to the House International Relations Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia recommending that Congress allow the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act to expire.

USA ENGAGE Vice Chairman, urge Congress to allow the ILSA to expire
Washington, D.C. Testifying at the House International Relations Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia, Bill Reinsch, National Foreign Trade Council (NFTC) President and USAHENGAGE Vice Chairman, today urged Congress to allow the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA) to expire.


John S. Wolf, Special Advisor to the President and Secretary of State for Caspian Basin Energy Diplomacy
April 12, 2000 - In testimony April 12 on the Caspian Sea Pipeline before Senator Hagel's Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Energy, John S. Wolf, the Secretary of State for Caspian Energy Diplomacy, made a statement on the negative effects of the US sanctions policy against Azerbaijan: "Restrictions on the United States' ability to help countries like Azerbaijan directly, because of Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act, clearly impede our ability to foster the kind of economic and political institutional development that this Congress so often champions."

Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura before the House Ways & Means Committee on China and the WTO
March 30, 2000 - Calling China's participation in the WTO the "number one marketing opportunity of the 21st Century" for the United States, Governor Ventura also called for an end to the sanctions on Cuba and an increase in US engagement: "Closed doors don't work. We've tried that. For 45 years we've had an embargo to prove that we don't like how Cuba does business. Well the joke's on us. Castro has outlasted nine going on 10 presidents. While embroiling ourselves in controversies over little children, communism remains. Markets are shut to our agriculture products, and we haven't impacted improvements in human rights."

Reps. Donald Manzullo, Carolyn McCarthy, Philip Crane and Cal Dooley
June 24, 1999 - Reps. Donald Manzullo (R-IL), Carolyn McCarthy (D-NY), Philip Crane (R-IL) and Cal Dooley (D-CA), testified before the House Small Business Committee Subcommittee on Tax, Finance and Exports on June 24, 1999, on the subject of "Do Unilateral Economic Trade Sanctions Unfairly Penalize Small Business?

To read the entire transcript click here

Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs Stuart Eizenstat before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the subject the use of sanctions as policy tools.
July 1, 1999 - The Administration has a clear position, Mr. Chairman, on the role of economic sanctions. Properly designed, implemented and applied as a part of a coherent strategy, sanctions--including economic sanctions--are a valuable tool for enforcing international norms and protecting our national interests. At the same time, sanctions are a blunt instrument. They are not a panacea nor are they cost free. Indeed, used inappropriately, they can actually impede the attainment of our objectives and come at a significant cost to other U.S. policy objectives.

Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs Stuart Eizenstat on-the-record briefing with Rick Newcomb Director, Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury Department
Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs, Stuart Eizenstat, recently conducted a briefing with Rick Newcomb, Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control at the Treasury Department on the subject of the Clinton Administration's recent actions regarding the easing of U.S. unilateral sanctions on shipments of food and medicine to certain countries.

Testimony of Richard J. Swift Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Foster Wheeler Corporation
March 4, 1999
On Behalf of the National Foreign Trade Council, Inc. Before the Subcommittee on International Trade Committee on Ways and Means U.S. House of Representatives

Testimony of Frank Kittredge Vice Chairman of USA*ENGAGE
10 September 1998 -- Before The Subcommittee On International Economic Policy And Trade House Committee On International Relations

Testimony of Richard Haass Director of the Foreign Policy Studies program at Brookings
9 September 1998 -- Before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions

Testimony from Bill Lane, Chairman of USA*ENGAGE and Washington Director of Caterpillar Inc.
September 9, 1998, before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions, Washington DC
While sanctions -- even unilateral ones -- may be appropriate at times, we should all recognize that engagement can be a powerful force for positive change when pursued at all levels -- political, diplomatic, economic, charitable, religious, educational, and cultural. In contrast, a unilateral sanction can isolate America, taking away the influence and credibility we gain by being involved. The Lugar Sanctions Reform Act (S.1413) provides reasonable reforms that would provide a more disciplined, deliberative process for considering unilateral sanctions. With greater focus on prevention, process and accountability we believe the U.S. will have a more effective foreign policy. We ask that you make passage of S.1413 a top priority for the reminder of this Congress.

Testimony from Tom Donohue, President and CEO of The U.S. Chamber of Commerce
September 9, 1998, before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions, Washington DC
"And in virtually all meaningful instances, those actions failed to alter materially the target countries' objectionable behavior. Instead, erstwhile "allies" castigate U.S. foreign policy, while the regimes we target gain support and U.S. businesses and their workers bear the burden of market opportunities lost to Asian and/or European competitors, whose own countries have chosen not to embark on similar unilateral courses of action. Various studies have indicated that unilateral sanctions have cost the American economy between $15 billion and $20 billion a year in lost export sales, and up to 250,000 export-related jobs. And this may be an understatement, as it is often difficult to quantify business that was lost because it was never sought."

Testimony from William Sprague, President of the Kentucky Farm Bureau Federation
September 9, 1998, before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions, Washington DC
"America's farmers and ranchers depend on sales to the export market for over one-third of our production. American agriculture is more than twice as reliant on foreign trade than the U.S. economy as a whole. Only four percent of the world's consumers live within the United States borders. To grow and be economically stable American farmers and ranchers must have free and open access to the 96 percent of the world's consumers who live beyond our borders."

Statement by Under Secretary of State Stuart Eizenstat
June 3, 1998, Washington DC
Used in an appropriate way, economic sanctions can be an effective means to further U.S. policy goals. Used under inappropriate circumstances, they can actually impede the attainment of our objective and come at a significant cost to other U.S. policy objectives.

Statement by Senator Chuck Hagel
June 2, 1998, Washington DC
One element of our foreign policy--sanctions--needs to be reviewed. Sanctions without our allies' support do not work. We are living in a different world. Sanctions are of limited value.

International Trade Commission Hearing
May 14, 1998, Washington DC
Hearing included the testimony of USA*ENGAGE Chairman William C. Lane of Caterpillar and National Foreign Trade Council President and USA*ENGAGE Vice Chairman Frank Kittredge.

Statement by Representative Lee H. Hamilton
May 14, 1998, Washington, DC
Mr. Chairman, we all agree that the United States should do more to promote religious freedom around the world. I think everyone in this Chamber wants to do that. I believe that the bill that is before us is brought forward with the very best of intentions. The question is, what is the best way to accomplish our objective? I do not believe this bill, as presently drafted, is the best way. I will oppose it.

Testimony of William C. Lane
March 25, 1998, Washington, DC
Washington Director -- Governmental Affairs Caterpillar Inc., On Behalf of USA*Engage, Before Subcommittee on International Economic Policy, Export and Trade Promotion, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Honorable Chuck Hagel, Nebraska, Chairman.

Statement of Frank D. Kittredge
February 26, 1998, Washington, DC
President, National Foreign Trade Council, and Vice Chairman, USA*ENGAGE, Before the Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Statement of Ernest Z. Bower
February 26, 1998, Washington, DC
President of the U.S.-ASEAN Business Council before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Relations.

Oral Testimony of Arthur T. Downey
February 26, 1998, Washington, DC
Vice President, Government Affairs, Baker Hughes Incorporated on behalf of the National Association of Manufacturers, Before the Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate.

Testimony of Arthur T. Downey
February 26, 1998, Washington, DC
Vice President, Government Affairs, Baker Hughes Incorporated on behalf of the National Association of Manufacturers, Before the Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate.

Statement of Ernest H. Preeg
February 26, 1998, Washington, DC
William M. Scholl Chair in International Business, Center for Strategic and International Studies. Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on East Asian Pacific Affairs.

Statement of Secretary of State Madeleine Albright
February 11, 1998, Washington, DC
Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

Statement of Richard Albrecht
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
Richard Albrecht, Senior Advisor to the Boeing Company on behalf of USA*ENGAGE.

Statement of Stuart Eizenstat, Under Secretary of State
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
Stuart Eizenstat, Under Secretary for Economic, Business and Agricultural. Remarks before the U.S. House of Representatives, Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee.

Statement of Representative Lee H. Hamilton
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
Before A Hearing on the Use and Effect of Unilateral Sanctions Subcommittee on Trade, October 23, 1997.

Statement of Frank D. Kittredge
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
I am Frank D. Kittredge, President of the National Foreign Trade Council, an association of 550 U.S. companies engaged in international trade and investment. I am also appearing today as Vice Chairman of USA*ENGAGE, a broadly-based coalition of about 650 American companies and trade and agricultural organizations that has formed to encourage policy-makers to find alternatives to unilateral economic sanctions as a foreign policy tool.

Statement of Charles Kruse
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
President of the Missouri Farm Bureau and a member of the AFBF Board of Directors.

Statement of Representative Jim Kolbe
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC, Subcommittee on Trade of Committee of Ways and Means.

Speech given by Kimberly Ann Elliott
October 23, 1997, Washington, DC
Research Fellow, Institute for International Economics, Before the Subcommittee on Trade of the House Committee on Ways and Means.

Statement of the Honorable John Shattuck
September 9, 1997, Washington, DC
Assistant Secretary of State John Shattuck on H.R. 1685 'The Freedom from Religious Persecution Act of 1997' before the House International Relations Committee.

Speech given by Jeffrey J. Schott
July 23, 1997, Washington, DC
Senior Fellow, Institute for International Economics.

Testimony of John E. Pepper
March 18, 1997, Washington, DC
John E. Pepper (CEO of Procter & Gamble Company), on behalf of the National Foreign Trade Council, Inc.

Testimony of Michael H. Jordan
March 18, 1997, Washington, DC
Michael H. Jordan (CEO Westinghouse Electric Corp.), on behalf of the Emergency Committee for American Trade.

Click here for upcoming sanctions policy events. Testimony of John Imle, Jr.
May 22, 1996, Washington, DC
John Imle, CEO of Unocal Corp., outlines why geology and geography -- not geopolitics -- require that his company maintain a presence near natural gas reserves in Myanmar.





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